www.bryozoans.nl - Glossary

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This page provides an overview and explanation of many terms. A significant part is derived from [Ryland].
First the more relevant terms are provided. After that a more complete list is provided.

Key terms are:

Term Explanation
Cystid (kystis = cell / sack)
Zooid wall - outer static part of a zooid
Hybernacula 'Sleeping bud' or 'survival capsule' - a tough, brouwn and irregularly formed capsule that houses a zooid bud that waits for better times. Comparable but not equal to statoblasts.
Is formed by an adjusted zooid with a thicker chitin wall
One difference with statoblasts is that the latter have a two-part wall, whyle hybernacula have a wall in one part.
Are made exclusively in fresh water by Paludicella and Victorella species.
Lofofoor, Lophophoor (lophos = comb + phoreus = barer)
The basis of the tentacles. The lophophoor form determines the form of the tentacle crown that extend from it.
[Allman] "The sort of disk or stage which surrounds the mouth and bears the tentacula .."
Polypid (polypous = many feeted or tentacled anymal + eidos = looking like)
Retractable part of a zooid that includes the tentacle crown
[Allman] ".. the retractable portion of the Polyzoa"
Stolon Joint base tube from which zooids extend (only seawater and brackisch species (V. pavida))
Statoblast Statos = standing, inactive + blastos = bud
'sleeping bud' or 'survival capsule' - a tough capsule in which a zooid bud awaits better times.
Are made exclusively by Phylactolaemata species and therefore exclusively in fresh water.
Statoblasts are formed both when the water temperature falls and when food becomes scarce.
Statoblasts are built from two chitin 'valves' that together form a capsule that protect the zooid bud.
Some statoblasts have an extra outer layer - called the periblast - that may form a gas-filled annulus that enables the statoblast to float (sessoblasts)
Zoarium Colony. Each animal (zooid) in a colony (zoarium) is a genetically identical clone from the original mother) zooid
Zooid One single animal, part of a colony

A more complete list:

Term Explanation
Ancestrula Primairy zooid (or zooids) that are first to settle from an embryo or survival capsule (statoblast of hybernacula) and form the base for a new colony
Annulus Part of statoblasts of some species that consists of a gas filled ring that resides under an extra chitin layer (periblast). The annulus enables the statoblast to float.
A-sexual budding Colony growth through formation of new zooids without sexual reproduction. New (dougther) zooids are genetically identical clones of earlier (mother) zooids.
Autozooid A zooid that has a polypid and a tentacle crown.
May grow out of a stolon (kenozooid)
Never found in freshwater species. Is found in V. pavida
Bryozoa, BryozoŽn, Bryozoans Zoophytes with mouth and anus
Cilia Flagellate cells - stand on tentacles and produce a water stream (directed at the mouth) by joint synchronized movement.
Coenoecium [Allman] ".. the common dermal system of a colony .."
Not really in use
Coelomic cavity Space between the digestive tract and the zooid wall
Cystid (kystis = cell / sack)
Zooid wall - outer static part of a zooid
Dichotome branching Strictly regular branching, the same at every level
Epistome A tissue flap that hangs over the mouth. Found in some species
[Allman] "The Epistome is a perculiar valve-like organ which arches over the mouth in most of the fresh-water genera."
Floatoblast A statoblast with a gas-filled chamber (annulus) that allows it to float to the surface. Facilitates dispersal of a species over larger to large distances. Some even have hooks.
Naming according to [Mundy]
Fungoid A way to describe the colony form - looks like a fungus.
Also compared to a lawn
Zooids are packed closely together.
Example P. fungosa, P. repens
Funiculus (funis = rope)
Chord formed of mesenchymal tissue that runs from the stomach to the zooid base or, in some species, though the base to a joint stolon.
Antler like branching Irregular branching pattern that usually has smaller branches on higher (further from origin) levels
Hermaprody, hermafrodit Both male and female sexe in one animal or colony
Hybernacula 'Sleeping bud' or 'survival capsule' - a tough, brouwn and irregularly formed capsule that houses a zooid bud that waits for better times. Comparable but not equal to statoblasts.
Is formed by an adjusted zooid with a thicker chitin wall
One difference with statoblasts is that the latter have a two-part wall, whyle hybernacula have a wall in one part.
Are made exclusively in fresh water by Paludicella and Victorella species.
Introvert Tentacle sheet that covers the tentacles when they are retracted
Kenozoide ZoŲid that has no tentacle crown, but serves as common base and connecting tube.
Also called stolon.
Never in fresh-water species. Found in V. pavida
Lofofoor, Lophophore (lophos = comb + phoreus = barer)
The basis of the tentacles. The lophophore form determines the form of the tentacle crown that extend from it.
[Allman] "The sort of disk or stage which surrounds the mouth and bears the tentacula .."
Mesocoel Body cavity within the lophophore
Metacoel Body cavity outside the lophophore; the lophophore has its own internal cavity
Periblast An extra outer layer on statoblasts that may form a gas-filled annulus that enables the statoblast to float (sessoblasts)
Polyp Lopophore + tentacle crown
Polypid (polypous = many feeted or tentacled anymal + eidos = looking like)
Retractable part of a zooid that includes the tentacle crown
[Allman] ".. the retractable portion of the Polyzoa"
Polyzoa Bryozoa (synonim)
Pylorus Tigthning part of the stomach
Sessoblast A statoblast without an annulus (floating ring) that either remains where it is formed or sinks.
Ensures a colony is formed on a proven beneficial location and that an attempt is made to extend the presens in the area nearby.
Terminology according to [Mundy]
Digestive tract Chanal formed by mouth, pharynx, oesophagus, stomach, gut and rectum to the anus
Stolon Joint base tube from which zooids extend (only seawater and brackisch species (V. pavida)
Statoblast Statos = standing, inactive + blastos = bud
'sleeping bud' or 'survival capsule' - a tough capsule in which a zooid bud awaits better times.
Are made exclusively by Phylactolaemata species and therefore exclusively in fresh water.
Statoblasts are formed both when the water temperature falls and when food becomes scarce.
Statoblasts are built from two chitin 'valves' that together form a capsule that protect the zooid bud.
Some statoblasts have an extra outer layer - called the periblast - that may form a gas-filled annulus that enables the statoblast to float (sessoblasts)
Superneural pore Small opening at the base of the most dorsal (backwards) tentacles, which the egg passes through into the outside world
Tentacle(s) One single extension of a polyp - a polyp has a lopophore as base and from that extends tentacles
Zoarium Colony. Each animal (zooid) in a colony (zoarium) is a genetically identical clone from the original mother) zooid
Zooecium (zoon = animal + oikion = house)
non-polypoid part / skeleton that remains when zooid dies
Zooid One single animal, part of a colony