Fredericella sultana (Blumenbach 1779)

Verder in Nederlands

  1. More information
  2. Photos
  3. Microscope photos and videos
  4. Statoblasts

Proposal for common name: Simple bryozoan or moss animal

Fredericella sultana


Class Family Genus Species First described by
Phylactolaemata Fredericellidae Fredericella F. sultana Blumenbach 1779


The following synonyms have been used to indicate Fredericella sultana:

  1. Tubularia sultana (Blumenbach 1779)
  2. Naisa sultana (Lamouroux 1816)
  3. Plumatella gelatinosa (Fleming 1828)
  4. Plumatella sultana (Dumortier 1828)
  5. Fredericella sultana (Gervais 1838)
  6. Fredericella dilatata (Allman 1844)
  7. Fredericella regina (Leidy 1851)
  8. Fredericella pulcherrima (Hyatt 1868)
  9. Fredericella duplessisi (Forel 1885)
  10. Plumatella lucifuga (Jullien 1885)
  11. Fredericella sultana var. cunningtini (Rousselet 1907)
  12. Fredericella indica (Annandale 1909)
  13. Fredericella sultana var. jordanica (Annandale 1913)
  14. Fredericella jordanica (Abrikosov 1924)
  15. Fredericella lepnevae (Abrikosov 1927)


Also see the generic class and genus description in the classification page.
A combination of literature has been used to create this description.

  1. Colonies branch antler like
  2. Colonies will develop both closely to the substrate, freestanding and hanging
  3. Branches in close proximity will not adhere. No lawn type colony form exists
  4. Cystids will become stronger and more stiff by adhering particles, such as excretions, diatomee shells, algae. These will be added to the still weak chitin-like wall as it develops.
  5. Older cystids have a clear keel
  6. Zooids are open branching
Color Brownish
Tentacle crown Tentacle crown is almost round (a shallow curve indicates a horse shoe shape) with 16 - 30 tentacles.
Size One zooid is up to 1 mm long and slender
A colony is 3 cm in length maximum
Statoblasts Statoblasts are produced only in sinking form (sessoblasts)
Statoblasts are oval or reniform with (almost) no annulus
If statoblasts develop against the body wall, then they will remain attached and thereby in that location (ensuring continued habitation of a known successful location)
If statoblasts develop free in the coelom, they will be freed when the zooid dies and float in the water (so nearby locations are colonized).
Conditions Flat (shallow?) low current waters
Up to 100 m depth (in deep mountainous lakes)
Several substrates
Generally close to the bottom of pools and lakes
Seldom on plants that grow out of the water
Seldom in shallow or fast flowing water
Distribution No information found in literature
Additional None

Relevant literature

To be completed

  1. [Mundy] - A key to the British and European Freshwater Bryozoans
  2. [Wood II] - A new key to the freshwater bryozoans of Britain, Ireland and Continental Europe

My observations

  1. Often underneath or at the sides of the substrate, aparently to shelter for silt is found there