Plumatella fruticosa (Allman 1844)

Verder in Nederlands

  1. More information
  2. Photos
  3. Microscope photos and videos
  4. Statoblasts

Proposal for common name: Slender bryozoan or moss animal

Plumatella fruticosa


Class Family Genus Species First described by
Phylactolaemata Plumatellidae Plumatella P. fruticosa Allman 1844


The following synonyms have been used to indicate Plumatella fruticosa:

  1. Plumatella fruticosa (Allman 1844)
  2. Plumatella lucifuga (Jullien 1885)
  3. Plumatella princeps var. fruticosa (Kraeplin 1887)
  4. Plumatella lucifuga var. typica (Kafka 1887)
  5. Plumatella princeps var. fruticosa (Davenport 1899)
  6. Plumatella repens (Annandale 1907)
  7. Plumatella emarginata (Loppens 1909)
  8. Alcyonella fruticosa (Goddard 1909)
  9. Plumatella emarginata var. fruticosa (Hartmeyer 1909)
  10. Plumatella coralloides (Annandale 1911)
  11. Plumatella princeps var. fruticosa (Pateff 1924)
  12. Plumatella repens var. fruticosa (Rogerick 1934)
  13. Plumatella repens var. fruticosa (Carl 1943)


Also see the generic class and genus description in the classification page.
A combination of literature has been used to create this description.

  1. Colonies flat on the substrate surface and widely spread, with freehanging branches
  2. If substrate surface is limited a bushy growth. Cystid chains and branches never adherent
  3. Primary (mother) zooids often build multiple stacking daughter-zooids
  4. The septs between the zooids and the 'kielbildungen' along the cystids very variable
  5. [Mundy]Colony always upright and attached to the substrate in only one or two places
  6. [Mundy]Zooids are triangular in cross section and the zooicum is thin and brittle
  7. Observe the regular branching pattern of the chitine tubes
Color Several shades of brown, specially grey-brown to yellow-brown
Tentacle crown Horseshoe shaped tentacle crown with 30 tot 60 tentacles.
Less developed / well expressed than is found in other Plumatella species.
Size One zooid is about 2 mm long
A colony ?? cm maximum in length
Statoblasts Floating statoblasts (floatoblasts); oval or elongated (more than 2,5 times longer than broad
Annulus much broader at the poles than sideways; generally with (sometimes without) swimming band
Non floating statoblasts (sessoblasts) are oval
There are multiple statoblasts per zooid
Conditions Prefers tranquil sheltered waters; sometimes with some current, often near to surface
Rare in higher current (easily ripped off due to limited attachment to substrate)
On floating leaves and aquatic plants in standing water and mild currents
Distribution < TO BE DONE >
Additional Rare

Relevant literature

To be completed

  1. [Mundy] - A key to the British and European Freshwater Bryozoans
  2. [Wood II] - A new key to the freshwater bryozoans of Britain, Ireland and Continental Europe

My observations

  1. On first observation easily confused with F. sultana - a closer look at the tentacle crown shows the difference
  2. Colonies always below a stone or a tree trunk, in my opinion to shelter from settling silt
  3. Colonies never below about 3 meter depth
  4. Zooids can be thinner than shown on my pictures
  5. P. fruticosa rapidly subtracts at the least disturbance
  6. P. fruticosa is warmth loving and only starts developing when the water temperature rises above 15 - 16 degrees Celsius
  7. P. fruticosa dies in fall when the water temperature drops below about 12 degrees Celsius